ENR 1.2 VISUAL FLIGHT RULES

1 VFR CRITERIA (SERA.5001 TABLE S5-1)

A VFR flight may only be carried out when flight visibility and distance of aircraft from clouds are equal to or greater than the values specified in the following table:

Altitude bandAirspace classFlight visibilityDistance from cloud
At and above FL 100A1) B C D E F G8 KM1500 M horizontally
300 M (1000 FT) vertically
Below FL 100 and above 3000 FT (900 M) AMSL, or 1000 FT (300 M) above terrain, whichever is the higherA1) B C D E F G5 KM1500 M horizontally
300 M (1000 FT) vertically
At and below 3000 FT (900 M) AMSL, or 1000 FT (300 M) above terrain, whichever is the higherA1) B C D E5 KM1500 M horizontally
300 M (1000 FT) vertically
F G5 KM2)Clear of cloud and with the surface in sight
  1. The VMC minima in class A airspace are included for guidance to pilots and do not imply acceptance of VFR flights in class A airspace.
  2. In class G airspace at and below 3000 FT AMSL applies a flight visibility reduced to not less than:
    1. 1500 M for flights operating:
      • at speeds of 140 KIAS or less to give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision; or
      • in circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low.
    2. 800 M for military helicopters, police aircraft and helicopter flights on behalf of trauma teams, at speeds that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacle in time to avoid collision.
1.1 Controlled VFR flights

VFR flights shall be executed in accordance with the general and visual flight rules for controlled flights when the flight is:

  1. Forming part of aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes.
  2. Operated as a special VFR flight.
  3. Operated within airspace class B, C, and D.
1.2 VFR flights at night (SERA.5005c)

VFR flights outside UDP may be permitted for aeroplanes, helicopters, airships and touring motor gliders under the following conditions (for restrictions see paragraph 3.1):

  • if leaving the vicinity of an aerodrome, a flight plan shall be submitted in accordance with SERA.4001(b)(6);
  • flights shall establish and maintain two-way radio communication on the appropriate ATS communication channel, when available;
  • the VMC visibility minimum flight altitude restrictions as specified in SERA.5005 shall apply. This means that in addition to the daylight VFR restrictions the ceiling should always be at least 1500 FT and the pilot should at all times have the surface in sight. Except when necessary for take-off or landing, a VFR flight outside UDP shall maintain a level at least 300 M (1000 FT) above the highest obstacle located within 8 KM of the estimated position of the aircraft.

2 SPECIAL VFR FLIGHTS (SERA.5010)

ATC may, under certain conditions, authorise special VFR flights within a control zone, when the flight visibility is not less than the value specified in paragraph 2.1.1.

2.1 Minimum values for flight visibility and cloud base
2.1.1 All aircraft

A clearance for a special VFR flight may be granted to pilots of aircraft whereby the following additional conditions shall be applied:

  1. by the pilot:
    1. clear of cloud and with the surface in sight;
    2. the flight visibility is not less than 1500 M or, for helicopters, not less than 800 M;
    3. at speed of 140 KIAS or less to give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic and any obstacles in time to avoid a collision; and
  2. by ATC:
    1. during UDP only, unless permitted by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management;
    2. the ground visibility is not less than 1500 M or, for helicopters, not less than 800 M;
    3. the ceiling is not less than 600 FT.
2.2 Separation with other traffic

The local ATC-unit will apply the ICAO minima for separation between IFR and special VFR flights and between special VFR flights, except that between special VFR flights a 500 FT vertical separation will be applied instead of 1000 FT.

3 RESTRICTIONS ON THE EXECUTION OF VFR FLIGHTS (SERA.5005)

3.1 Restrictions

VFR flights shall not be operated:

  1. Outside UDP (see GEN 2.7), excluding aeroplanes, helicopters, airships and touring motor gliders (MLA, MLH and gliders shall not operate VFR flights outside UDP).
  2. In airspace class A.
  3. In Amsterdam UTA, unless the conditions set by regulation are fulfilled.
  4. At transonic and supersonic speeds.

Exemptions may be authorised by the ATS authority (see paragraph 3.2).

military flights may be exempted from the restrictions under conditions prescribed in the Military AIP Netherlands and the relevant military regulations.
3.2 Authorisation
3.2.1 General

VFR flights may be authorised to operate within airspace class A or outside UDP according the rules specified in this paragraph and the limitations set by Regulation (EU) No 923/2012 (SERA 5005(c)). Authorisation may be granted for incidental flights or in the form of a general exemption.

Specific conditions may be imposed requiring e.g. controlled VFR flight, the carriage of communication and/or navigation equipment depending on the nature of the intended flight and the interference with the ATS route structure or other IFR procedures. Non compliance with such conditions constitutes a violation of the rules of the air.

3.2.2 Authorisation by agreement

Exemptions from the restrictions in Schiphol TMAs and CTA East, South 1, South 2 and West may be granted:

  1. For certain areas.
  2. For certain types of aircraft (e.g. gliders).

Such exemption shall be laid down in an agreement between the applicant(s) and the appropriate ATC unit, containing the conditions under which the exemption is granted.

Requests for exemptions shall be submitted in writing 6 weeks in advance. A request form is available on http://www.ilent.nl. The form can be submitted via email, or by post, to the following address:

Post:

Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate/Aviation
Aviation Approvals
P.O. Box 575
2130 AN Hoofddorp
The Netherlands

Email: aviation-approvals@ilent.nl

3.2.3 Authorisation for incidental flights

Flights of a specific character, requiring special handling by ATC, such as photo flights, calibration flights etc. may be exempted from the restrictions specified for airspace class A, provided that prior permission has been obtained.

Requests for exemptions shall be submitted in writing 6 weeks in advance. A request form is available on http://www.ilent.nl. The form can be submitted via email, or by post, to the address in paragraph 3.2.2.

Incidental flights other than those mentioned in this paragraph may be exempted from the restrictions in Nieuw Milligen CTA North by obtaining an air traffic control clearance from MILATCC Schiphol.

3.2.4 Co-ordination of flights with a specific character
3.2.4.1 General

Flights with a specific character, requiring special handling by ATC, such as photo flights, calibration flights, test flights, pipeline control flights etc. must be coordinated at least 24 HR in advance with:

Post:

LVNL
Operational Helpdesk (OHD)
P.O. Box 75200
1117 ZT Schiphol Airport

Tel: +31 (0)20 406 2201, OPR HR: 0600-1600 (0500-1500)

Email: ops_helpdesk@lvnl.nl

URL: http://www.lvnl-ohd.nl

3.2.4.2 Test flights

Test flights shall strictly adhere to the flight plan times provided by LVNL Operational Helpdesk.

In case of delay of more than 10 minutes the pilot shall call LVNL Operational Helpdesk in order to obtain new permission and a new start-up time for the test flight.

Delay in startup may result in a reduced timeframe for the test flight or cancellation of the flight.
3.2.5 Authorisation for VFR flights in CTR
3.2.5.1 General

For VFR flights in any civil or military CTR prior permission from the local ATC unit is required (for special procedures in civil CTRs see AD 2.22 of the relevant aerodrome).

Detailed balloon flight procedures are published in ENR 5.5 paragraph 6.

3.2.5.2 Permissions

Permissions to enter military CTRs can be obtained as follows:

  1. En route by radio (for the appropriate COM channels see EHEH AD 2.18, EHKD AD 2.18 or MIL CTRs ENR 2.1).
  2. Before departure, within the operational hours of the MIL aerodrome (see AD 1.1): telephone MIL aerodrome concerned.
on SAT, SUN and legal holidays and MON-FRI daily outside operational hours flying activities on or in the vicinity of the military aerodromes have to be taken into account.
to facilitate glider flying within Deelen CTR at the glider site Terlet the following areas may be activated:
Name and lateral limits Upper limit
Lower limit
Remarks
123
Terlet 1
520518N 0055603E;
520447N 0055854E;
520223N 0055820E;
520217N 0055505E;
520258N 0055514E;
520341N 0055354E;
520407N 0055409E;
520518N 0055603E.
925 FT AMSL
GND
Intensive glider flying can be expected when the area is activated (daily during UDP).
Terlet 2
520341N 0055354E;
521021N 0060046E;
520813N 0055942E;
along clockwise arc (radius 6.5 NM, centre
520335N 0055219E) to
515712N 0055414E;
515504N 0055311E;
520341N 0055354E.
3000 FT AMSL
925 FT AMSL
Intensive glider flying can be expected when the area is activated (daily during UDP).
Terlet 3
521053N 0055755E;
521021N 0060046E;
520813N 0055942E;
along clockwise arc (radius 6.5 NM, centre
520335N 0055219E) to
515712N 0055414E;
515504N 0055311E;
515546N 0054930E;
521053N 0055755E.
3000 FT AMSL
925 FT AMSL
Intensive glider flying can be expected when the area is activated (daily during UDP).
3.2.5.3 ATC clearances
3.2.5.3.1 Inbound traffic

Inbound traffic shall request ATC clearance by radio well in advance of entering the CTR, by means of a "request for landing".

for Schiphol airport this request shall be made at least 10 minutes before ETA Schiphol, according the procedure mentioned below.

A request for entry clearance for arriving aircraft shall contain:

  • aircraft identification and type
  • position
  • altitude
  • flight rules
  • ATIS information (if applicable)
  • request for landing instructions
A request for entry clearance for arriving aircraft at Schiphol airport shall contain:
  • aircraft identification and type
  • flight rules
  • destination
  • ETA "VICTOR"
  • ATIS information
  • request for landing instructions
3.2.5.3.2 Outbound traffic:

Outbound traffic shall request ATC clearance by radio:

  • before starting the engines, by means of "request start-up"
  • before leaving the parking position, by means of "request taxi"

A request for start-up/taxi permission for departing aircraft shall contain:

  • aircraft identification and type
  • position
  • flight rules
  • destination
  • ATIS information (if applicable)
  • request for start-up/taxi permission
3.2.5.3.3 Crossing traffic

Crossing traffic shall request ATC clearance well in advance of entering of the CTR, by means of "request crossing".

A request for crossing clearance for a CTR shall contain:

  • aircraft identification and type
  • flight rules
  • departure- and destination aerodrome
  • position
  • request for crossing clearance including route1) and altitude.
  1. VFR crossing of a CTR shall preferably take place along a route where visual navigation is possible by conspicuous land marks or by continuous route guidance such as: railroads, canals and highways. If such route will be used, it shall be mentioned in the request for crossing clearance.

VFR flights within a CTR may be instructed by ATC to stay clear of specified ILS areas. These areas are indicated on the appropriate charts.

3.2.5.4 VFR flights with radar assistance

Pilots may be instructed by TWR to contact APP for radar assistance. It is however the responsibility of the pilot to maintain at all times visual reference to the ground and keep clear of obstacles. Pilots shall inform the radar controllers if compliance with the above entails a change of heading or altitude.

3.2.5.5 Short approach patterns

For air traffic control purposes or on request TWR may instruct to execute a short VFR approach pattern. These patterns, threshold base leg and midrunway base leg, are established to avoid traffic operation on other runways to expedite traffic and for noise abatement purposes.

3.2.5.5.1 Threshold base leg

An approach pattern of which the base leg is flown at 90° to the runway centre line exactly opposite to the threshold.

3.2.5.5.2 Midrunway base leg

An approach pattern of which the base leg is flown at 90° to the runway centre line and opposite to the approximate middle of the runway.

3.2.5.5.3 VFR missed approach procedure

In case of a missed approach the pilot shall inform ATC immediately while climbing to circuit altitude.

4 VFR FLIGHTS IN THE NORTH SEA AREA AMSTERDAM AND NORTH SEA AREA V

For VFR flights in the North Sea area Amsterdam and North Sea area V (see ENR 2.2), radio communication with Amsterdam Information is required.

5 VFR FLIGHT LEVELS (SERA Appendix 3)

VFR flights operated in level cruising flight above 3500 FT AMSL shall be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the track as specified in the table of cruising levels (see ENR 1.7), except when otherwise indicated in ATC clearances.

6 FLIGHT PLANNING FOR VFR FLIGHTS

Flight plans for VFR flight shall be filed and submitted in accordance with the rules in ENR 1.10.

7 RECOMMENDATIONS

7.1 VFR flights in the vicinity of Schiphol CTR

One of the reasons for the concentration of VFR flights near the boundary of Schiphol CTR is probably the availability of radio navigation aids in the vicinity of Schiphol airport.

Pilots should realise that almost all IFR flights are approaching Schiphol Airport at an altitude of 2000 FT AMSL via the locators CH, NV, and OA (which are situated outside Schiphol CTR 1) and that such flights are leaving that altitude practically at the boundary of CTR 1. Furthermore IFR traffic may be anywhere within the CTR at altitudes below 2000 FT AMSL during radar vectoring for line up final approach to one of the runways at Schiphol Airport; these routes may be situated very close to the CTR boundary.

As the CTR boundary is not marked by visual reference it may not ruled out that VFR flights executed in the vicinity will accidentally cross this boundary. For that reason, and in the interest of one own's safety and that of others the execution of VFR flights in the vicinity of Schiphol CTR should be avoided.

Finally it is recommended to avoid the VFR entry point (VICTOR) for the Schiphol CTR as much as possible, since VFR traffic will be holding in the vicinity of this point whenever there is a large volume of traffic.

7.2 VFR flights in the vicinity of military CTRs

Pilots of aircraft executing VFR flights in the immediate vicinity of the military CTRs should be aware that intensive military VFR operations may be expected. The majority of these VFR operations is executed at a minimum altitude of 1000 FT AMSL. Consequently pilots of aircraft, executing a VFR flight in the vicinity of the military CTRs, are advised to choose an altitude below 1000 FT AMSL and to contact the aerodrome control of the military aerodrome concerned for traffic information (see ENR 2.1 and AD 2.18).

7.3 VFR flights in the vicinity of Schiphol TMA 1
7.3.1 Listening watch

All motorised aircraft flying below Schiphol TMA 1 are strongly recommended to maintain a listening watch on Amsterdam Information 124.300.

7.3.2 Risk of AIRPROX

The Schiphol TMAs, in which intensive airline traffic is operating, cover a large part of the airspace in the centre of the Netherlands. VFR flights are not permitted in the Schiphol TMAs. The airspace below the Schiphol TMAs is class G airspace. The lower limit of the Schiphol TMA 1 is 1500 FT AMSL. The minimum altitude of IFR flights in the Schiphol TMA 1 is 2000 FT AMSL.

according to the airspace classifications system, the horizontal boundary between the two airspace classes belongs to the least restrictive class i.e. class G. So VFR flights are permitted up to an altitude of exactly 1500 FT AMSL.

In the Schiphol TMA 1, AIRPROX occur regularly between IFR flights and VFR flights. It appears that pilots of VFR flights flying at 1500 FT AMSL unintentionally climb into the Schiphol TMA 1 due to turbulence or possible tolerance of the altimeter. Furthermore, the risk of wake turbulence and ACAS warnings exists in relation to airline traffic at 2000 FT AMSL. Therefore, pilots executing a VFR flight below the Schiphol TMA 1 are urgently requested not to operate at, or just below, an altitude of 1500 FT AMSL. Furthermore, it is highly recommended to gather up-to-date information regarding the runways in use at Schiphol Airport, to stay clear of the IFR traffic on intermediate and final approach.

7.4 VFR flights in TMAs

In those TMAs where VFR flights without an ATC clearance are permitted, pilots are encouraged to establish two-way radio communication with the appropriate APP/TWR unit. This will enable ATC to be better informed on all traffic, and, in turn, for pilots to receive more complete information on essential traffic.

Pilots are urgently requested not to execute VFR flights in the vicinity of the published instrument arrival and departure routes within the TMAs of Eelde, Lelystad, Maastricht and Rotterdam which are published in Part 3, AD 2: Aerodromes.

7.5 Reporting position at first radio contact MILATCC Schiphol

Pilots executing VFR flights are requested to report their position at first radio contact with MILATCC Schiphol (flight information service call sign: Dutch MIL Info), in order to enable the air traffic controller to establish an optimum air/ground communication. The position may be given as a bearing and distance from common known landmarks such as cities.

7.6 Conspicuity code

Use of the conspicuity code is stated in ENR 1.6.

8 CIRCUIT PROCEDURES FOR AERODROME TRAFFIC

8.1 Introduction

With regard to a safe, orderly and expeditious aerodrome traffic at uncontrolled aerodromes, rules are laid down for the standard aerodrome traffic circuit and circuit areas.

Approaching, joining and leaving the standard circuit, as well as the missed approach, has to be done in accordance with the following rules.

Due to local circumstances procedures could be deviating from the procedure for the standard circuit.

8.2 Standard aerodrome traffic circuit

8.3 Names of the components
  1. Runway
  2. Take-off leg
  3. Crosswind leg
  4. Downwind leg
  5. Base leg
  6. Final leg
8.4 Circuit area

The aerodrome circuit area is established for each runway. The lateral dimensions are also dependent on the local circumstances. The standard aerodrome traffic circuit as depicted above is situated within the aerodrome circuit area. The vertical dimensions extend from aerodrome level up to 1000 FT / 300 M AAL.

8.5 Circuit height

The standard aerodrome traffic circuit height is 700 FT / 210 M AAL.

8.6 Procedures (see figure)
  1. Climb to 700 FT / 210 M AAL. A climbing turn to crosswind leg is allowed, if necessary to stay within the aerodrome traffic circuit area.
  2. Fly horizontally at 700 FT / 210 M AAL.
  3. Maintain 700 FT / 210 M AAL at downwind leg.
  4. Make a descending turn at base leg so as to start the final approach from at least 300 FT / 91 M AAL.
  5. Make the final approach.
within the aerodrome traffic circuit it is not allowed to overtake other aircraft.
8.7 Overshoot

In case of an overshoot the pilot has to climb and join safely the aerodrome traffic circuit.

a shortened aerodrome traffic circuit is no longer prescribed, but may be flown if safety is guaranteed.
8.8 Joining the aerodrome traffic circuit
  1. Before executing the joining of the aerodrome traffic circuit, pilots have to take notice of the signals displayed in the signal area or of the information given by radio. Overflying the circuit area for observing the signal area shall be done at a height of at least 1000 FT / 300 M AAL.
  2. Descending or climbing to circuit height must be executed outside the lateral limits of the circuit area.
  3. The joining of the standard aerodrome traffic circuit shall take place half-way downwind leg at an interception angle of 90°.
8.9 Leaving the aerodrome traffic circuit
  1. Leaving of the aerodrome traffic circuit shall take place at an angle of 45° half-way crosswind leg unless local circumstances force to establish an other route which will be promulgated separately.
  2. Climbing or descending to cruising level must take place outside the lateral limits of the aerodrome circuit area.
8.10 Exceptions

When other aerodrome traffic is not hindered, the above mentioned rules do not apply:

  • when other rules are determined, due to local circumstances.
  • to banner-flights, specifically to this part of the flight regarding the hooking on, respectively disengaging of the towing banner.
  • to crop-dusting flights with loaded crop-dusting aircraft, during take-off and leaving the circuit, and while sprinkling areas in the circuit area.
  • to (simulated) forced landings.