How does a landing take place?

The actual landing is preceded by approach procedures. After circling in a holding pattern, if necessary, aircraft flying in from different directors are zip merged into the traffic flow for the landing runway. This is known as ‘vectoring’. It mean that the air traffic controller gives the aircraft instructions, by means of headings, to follow a particular flight pattern with the aim of placing the aircraft in the right positions in relation to each other. ‘Zip merging’ the different traffic flows to form a single flow is a complicated process, partly because the performance of the aircraft in relation to each other can vary sharply.
The air traffic controller guides the aircraft to a position close to the landing runway. The air traffic controllers have accurate radar equipment. With the aid of data from the air traffic control system (AAA system), they give aircraft operators instructions on the direction, speed and altitude.
By day, the final descent takes place from an altitude of about 2,000 feet (some 600 metres), close to the approach lights for the selected landing runway. The air traffic controller will then have guided the aircraft to a position directly in line with the runway, about 12 kilometres away. Radio signals from the Instrument Landing System (ILS) ensure that the pilot can make the final approach himself, even in very bad weather conditions or with poor visibility. The landing is made in a straight line at an angle of 3 degrees. The straight approach is necessary in connection with the preparations for the landing.
No specific routes are in use for traffic approaching Schiphol, except at night. For exceptional circumstances, routes are published in the aviation guide. These must be used when vectoring is not possible, for example in the event of radio or radar malfunctions. In such cases, the aviation guide makes it clear to the pilot what action should be taken. No specific routes can be given on the maps in the aviation guide within the area in which the vectoring process primarily takes place and the aircraft operator is informed that vectoring should be expected.